Student loans are notoriously difficult to escape, but there are some situations where student loan forgiveness can happen. Teachers, government employees, and members of other programs may be able to apply for student loan forgiveness.
But there’s a catch. When student loans are forgiven, borrowers may be surprised to see a big tax bill at the end of the year.
This topic is currently in flux, as there are proposals to make student loan forgiveness tax free. But for now, let’s look at the question: When is student loan forgiveness taxable?
What situations allow student loan forgiveness?
Unless you’re part of a qualified program (most commonly available for teachers and government employees), you typically cannot have your student loans forgiven or discharged. Even in bankruptcy, it is nearly impossible to have student loans canceled.
You could have your federal student loans forgiven if:
- Your school closes
- You become severely disabled or die
- You declare bankruptcy (in rare cases)
- Your eligibility was falsely certified
- You withdraw from school, but your school didn’t refund the proper amount to the lender
- You are a teacher or work in a public service career
- Your school committed fraud or misrepresented its services
As you can see, the options for student loan forgiveness are very limited. If you do qualify, however, it’s important to understand the tax implications of student loan forgiveness.
Is student loan forgiveness taxable?
For most taxes, you have to earn real income. Most commonly, this happens with your job. You are paid a certain amount of money, and you pay a percentage of that to the government. With student loan forgiveness, the amount forgiven can be treated (and taxed) as regular income.
Let’s say you are not married, earn $40,000 per year as a teacher, and have $50,000 in student loans. Earning $40,000 per year, your top tax rate is 25 percent. Because of how tax brackets work, you would not actually pay 25 percent of your total income. Your tax bill would be $5,771.25 with an effective tax rate of 14.4 percent.
But in that same year, you get your $50,000 remaining student loan balance forgiven. According to the current tax code, that $50,000 is treated as income, more than doubling your taxable income from $40,000 to $90,000. Thanks to saving $50,000, the IRS treats it like you actually earned $50,000 extra. So you have to pay taxes on that “income.”
Now, your taxes paid would be $18,271.25 with an effective tax rate of 20.3 percent. But you never got paid that $50,000, so it’s really like you have an effective tax rate of nearly 50 percent!
If this seems unfair to you, you’re not alone. Someone earning $40,000 per year may already be struggling financially. Add on an extra $10,000+ in student loan forgiveness tax, and that person is hardly scraping by.
There is one current exception to this rule: insolvency.
Insolvency and student loan forgiveness tax
When student loans are forgiven, you’re issued a form 1099C, which includes the amount of forgiven taxes to be included as income. But there is an exception for people who are considered to be “insolvent.”
Insolvency means your total liabilities are more than your total assets. If you are insolvent immediately before your loans are forgiven, you may have a loophole that allows you to lower your tax bill.
Let’s say Zack has $3,000 in the bank, a car worth $5,000, and $10,000 in retirement savings. He also has $15,000 in credit card debt, a $5,000 auto loan, and $20,000 in student loans.
His current net worth is his assets ($18,000) minus his liabilities ($40,000), giving him a net worth of -$22,000. If his $20,000 student loans are forgiven, he is still insolvent with a net worth of
In this case, because Zack is insolvent both before and after the loan forgiveness, he is off the hook and does not have to pay any income taxes on his student loan forgiveness.
Down the hall from Zack, his neighbor Wendy has $40,000 in assets and $60,000 in liabilities, of which $30,000 is student loans. Before her student loans are forgiven, Wendy is insolvent by $20,000, but after the loans are forgiven, she has a positive net worth of $10,000.
If her loans are forgiven, her solvency position is changed from -$20,000 to +$10,000. The “income” on the starting insolvent position is not taxable, but the remaining $10,000 is taxable.
Upstairs in the corner penthouse, lawyer Vanessa has $300,000 in assets and $150,000 in liabilities, of which $75,000 are student loans. Because she is solvent both before and after her $75,000 student loans are forgiven, the entire $75,000 is taxable.
Consult an expert if you face loan forgiveness
As you can see from the examples, this is complicated stuff. If you are in a position to have your student loans forgiven, you could end up with a massive tax bill or a very small one. The deciding factor is your net worth and how much is being forgiven.
To make sure you are on the up-and-up with the IRS, you are best served by working with a tax expert to make sure your tax bill is both correct and as low as possible. A trip to the accountant might sound expensive, but it could save you thousands in student loan forgiveness taxable income. That’s an investment well worth the cost.
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1 Important Disclosures for Earnest.
To qualify, you must be a U.S. citizen or possess a 10-year (non-conditional) Permanent Resident Card, reside in a state Earnest lends in, and satisfy our minimum eligibility criteria. You may find more information on loan eligibility here: https://www.earnest.com/eligibility. Not all applicants will be approved for a loan, and not all applicants will qualify for the lowest rate. Approval and interest rate depend on the review of a complete application.
Earnest fixed rate loan rates range from 3.89% APR (with Auto Pay) to 7.89% APR (with Auto Pay). Variable rate loan rates range from 2.47% APR (with Auto Pay) to 6.97% APR (with Auto Pay). For variable rate loans, although the interest rate will vary after you are approved, the interest rate will never exceed 8.95% for loan terms 10 years or less. For loan terms of 10 years to 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 9.95%. For loan terms over 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 11.95% (the maximum rates for these loans). Earnest variable interest rate loans are based on a publicly available index, the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). Your rate will be calculated each month by adding a margin between 1.82% and 5.50% to the one month LIBOR. The rate will not increase more than once per month. Earnest rate ranges are current as of Month/Day/Year, and are subject to change based on market conditions and borrower eligibility.
Auto Pay discount: If you make monthly principal and interest payments by an automatic, monthly deduction from a savings or checking account, your rate will be reduced by one quarter of one percent (0.25%) for so long as you continue to make automatic, electronic monthly payments. This benefit is suspended during periods of deferment and forbearance.
The information provided on this page is updated as of 08/21/18. Earnest reserves the right to change, pause, or terminate product offerings at any time without notice. Earnest loans are originated by Earnest Operations LLC. California Finance Lender License 6054788. NMLS # 1204917. Earnest Operations LLC is located at 302 2nd Street, Suite 401N, San Francisco, CA 94107. Terms and Conditions apply. Visit https://www.earnest.com/terms-of-service, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org, or call 888-601-2801 for more information on ourstudent loan refinance product.
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2 Important Disclosures for Laurel Road.
Laurel Road Disclosures
However, if the borrower chooses to make monthly payments automatically by electronic funds transfer (EFT) from a bank account, the fixed rate will decrease by 0.25%, and will increase back up to the regular fixed interest rate described in the preceding paragraph if the borrower stops making (or we stop accepting) monthly payments automatically by EFT from the designated borrower’s bank account.
However, if the borrower chooses to make monthly payments automatically by electronic funds transfer (EFT) from a bank account, the variable rate will decrease by 0.25%, and will increase back up to the regular variable interest rate described in the preceding paragraph if the borrower stops making (or we stop accepting) monthly payments automatically by EFT from the designated borrower’s bank account.
3 Important Disclosures for SoFi.
4 Important Disclosures for LendKey.
Refinancing via LendKey.com is only available for applicants with qualified private education loans from an eligible institution. Loans that were used for exam preparation classes, including, but not limited to, loans for LSAT, MCAT, GMAT, and GRE preparation, are not eligible for refinancing with a lender via LendKey.com. If you currently have any of these exam preparation loans, you should not include them in an application to refinance your student loans on this website. Applicants must be either U.S. citizens or Permanent Residents in an eligible state to qualify for a loan. Certain membership requirements (including the opening of a share account and any applicable association fees in connection with membership) may apply in the event that an applicant wishes to accept a loan offer from a credit union lender. Lenders participating on LendKey.com reserve the right to modify or discontinue the products, terms, and benefits offered on this website at any time without notice. LendKey Technologies, Inc. is not affiliated with, nor does it endorse, any educational institution.
5 Important Disclosures for CommonBond.
Offered terms are subject to change. Loans are offered by CommonBond Lending, LLC (NMLS # 1175900). If you are approved for a loan, the interest rate offered will depend on your credit profile, your application, the loan term selected and will be within the ranges of rates shown.
All Annual Percentage Rates (APRs) displayed assume borrowers enroll in auto pay and account for the 0.25% reduction in interest rate. All variable rates are based on a 1-month LIBOR assumption of 2.28% effective October 10, 2018.
6 Important Disclosures for Citizens Bank.
Citizens Bank Disclosures
|2.47% – 6.97%1||Undergrad & Graduate|
|2.56% – 7.30%3||Undergrad & Graduate|
|2.68% – 8.96%4||Undergrad & Graduate|
|3.23% – 6.65%2||Undergrad & Graduate|
|2.61% – 7.35%5||Undergrad & Graduate|
|3.00% – 9.74%6||Undergrad & Graduate|