Here’s the Difference Between Federal and Private Student Loan Consolidation

Advertiser Disclosure

Student Loan Hero Advertiser Disclosure

Our team at Student Loan Hero works hard to find and recommend products and services that we believe are of high quality. We sometimes earn a sales commission or advertising fee when recommending various products and services to you. Similar to when you are being sold any product or service, be sure to read the fine print to help you understand what you are buying. Be sure to consult with a licensed professional if you have any concerns. Student Loan Hero is not a lender or investment advisor. We are not involved in the loan approval or investment process, nor do we make credit or investment related decisions. The rates and terms listed on our website are estimates and are subject to change at any time.

Editorial Note: This content is not provided or commissioned by any financial institution. Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and may not have been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by the financial institution.

private student loan consolidation
Logo

We’ve got your back! Student Loan Hero is a completely free website 100% focused on helping student loan borrowers get the answers they need. Read more

How do we make money? It’s actually pretty simple. If you choose to check out and become a customer of any of the loan providers featured on our site, we get compensated for sending you their way. This helps pay for our amazing staff of writers (many of which are paying back student loans of their own!).

Bottom line: We’re here for you. So please learn all you can, email us with any questions, and feel free to visit or not visit any of the loan providers on our site. Read less

Refinancing with Earnest

Refinancing rates from 2.14% APR. Checking your rates won’t affect your credit score.

Check out Earnest

Most college graduates leave school with a number of different student loans, racked up throughout their years of study. Each of these loans can come with different terms, payments, servicers and statements. The sheer amount of numbers and other information can be difficult to track.

If you feel overwhelmed with managing your student loan debt, don’t panic — you do have options. One way to make student loans easier to deal with is through federal and private student loan consolidation.

When you consolidate your debt, you combine all those loans into one. You do this by taking out a new loan for the amount of the balances of the existing loans, use the newly borrowed money to repay all the older debt, and then focus on repaying your one new loan.

This simplifies your financial situation and makes your debts easier to keep track of. Other benefits of consolidation could include securing more favorable interest rates (if you also refinance) and lower monthly payments (by extending your repayment term).

Federal and private student loan consolidation: What you need to know

Before you choose to consolidate your loans, examine your situation carefully to determine if this is the best course of action. This isn’t a solution that works well for everyone.

Consolidation doesn’t always result in a lower interest rate — even if you refinance — and lower monthly payments usually mean paying the loan over a longer period of time and spending more on interest.

You also need to know that the process is different for federal student loans and private student loans, especially if you’re trying to manage both kinds of loans. Private lenders may be able to consolidate both private and federal loans, but you cannot roll private loans into a new federal Direct Consolidation Loan.

And just because you can use refinancing to consolidate private student loans together with your federal loans doesn’t mean it’s a good idea either. Doing so eliminates any benefits or eligibility for federal repayment plans or loan forgiveness that you could have received from a federal program.

If you think you’ll need an income-driven repayment plan or want to pursue federal forgiveness options, it’s best not to mix federal and private loans.

Should I consolidate my federal student loans?

When you choose to consolidate your federal student loans, the government will combine all your separate debts into a single new loan, known as a Direct Consolidation Loan. You can apply once you graduate, otherwise leave school or become enrolled less than half-time; these events will trigger the start of your repayment.

Most federal student loans are eligible for consolidation, including subsidized and unsubsidized Direct loans, subsidized and unsubsidized federal Stafford loans, Direct PLUS loans and others. Although the Perkins loan program came to an end in September 2017, old Perkins loans are still eligible for consolidation, as well.

If you have a PLUS loan in the name of a parent, that loan cannot be transferred to the student during consolidation. Also, you can’t consolidate a defaulted loan until you make a repayment agreement with the loan’s servicer or agree to repay the new consolidated loan with one of the government’s eligible repayment plans.

Pros of consolidating federal student loans

  • Direct Consolidation loans offer one single payment and potentially lower monthly payments.
  • Consolidating federal loans is free via the federal government. Beware of companies which offer to help you consolidate federal student loans for a fee.
  • No credit check is required to consolidate federal student loans, and you can apply online.

On the other hand, if you’re only interested in simplifying your situation, consider finding other ways of tracking your debt and managing repayment. That’s because Direct Consolidation Loans have drawbacks, too.

Cons of consolidating federal student loans

  • A lower monthly payment means paying the loan over a longer period of time, which will cost you more money due to interest charges.
  • When you consolidate your federal student loans, you lose the ability to strategically target your highest interest and/or highest balance loans using a method such as the debt avalanche or debt snowball.
  • Federal consolidation doesn’t result in a better interest rate. Rather, the new rate is a weighted average of all the interest rates on your student loans, rounded up to the nearest one-eighth of a percentage point.
  • Some federal consolidation loans may come with higher interest rates than private loans. For example, the average interest rate for Direct unsubsidized loans for graduate or professional students is 6.6%, while some student loan refinancing lenders offer rates below 3% if you qualify. That difference can really add up over time — you can check our refinancing calculator to see how much.

Be sure to explore all your options and weigh which benefits — those from Direct Consolidation loans or those from other strategies, such as refinancing — will help you the most.

Should I consolidate my private student loans?

While private student debt isn’t eligible for federal loan consolidation, you can still consolidate your private loans by refinancing with a private lender. Requirements and eligibility will vary from one financial institution to another.

Some private lenders may require you borrow a minimum amount. Some might use different criteria to evaluate your creditworthiness than others. It’s best to reach out to individual lenders to ask for their specific rules around eligibility. You can compare the results to determine what might be a good fit for you.

Some of the benefits and drawbacks of consolidating your private student loans are similar to those for consolidating federal loans:

Pros of consolidating private student loans

  • You may benefit by creating an easier-to-manage financial situation, getting better terms or securing lower monthly payments.
  • One big benefit of consolidating private student loans through refinancing is potentially securing a much lower interest rate. Your rate will be based on your creditworthiness or that of a cosigner.
  • If your credit score has significantly improved from the time you took out your loans, or you have built a solid income and employment history, you’re more likely to get a low rate that could make refinancing a smart financial move.

Cons of consolidating private student loans

  • When considering consolidation, keep in mind whether you’re also extending the repayment term. Again, with more payments comes more interest.
  • While there’s no cost to originate a federal Direct Consolidation Loan, some private lenders will charge an origination fee.
  • A credit check is required to consolidate private student loans via refinancing, which may be a downside, depending on your credit history.

Again, it’s important to evaluate all your options before making a decision.

Consolidation vs. refinancing

As you probably noticed, consolidating private student loans is generally done by refinancing. However, you don’t necessarily have to consolidate in order to refinance. You can cherry-pick just the loans that would save you money by refinancing, while leaving other debt (perhaps including your federal loans) as they are.

This might make more sense if you have fewer loans and just one has a very high interest rate. You can refinance to a lower rate and maintain the original benefits and rates on all your other loans.

Remember that the federal government will not refinance your loans — they only offer Direct Consolidation loans. Private lenders will refinance both federal and private student loans.

If you want to compare the immediate benefits of Direct Loan consolidation vs. private consolidation and refinancing for your situation, check out the calculator below:

Consolidation vs. Refinancing Calculator

Total interest paid

Monthly payment

Interest rate

Payoff date

CurrentConsolidation
Refinancing
Total amount paid
Monthly payment
Interest rate
Payoff date
Consolidating your federal student loans through the Direct Loan Consolidation program would set your new interest rate at , slightly higher than your current rate of . If you chose to remain on the standard repayment plan, you would pay and would finish paying off your loans in . If you refinanced your student loans, with a and 15 year term, you would pay and pay off your loans by .

Refinancing is the only way to lower your interest rate but you may lose some of the safeguards associated with having federal loans, so make sure you are fully educated on the decision by reading our recommended resources below:

Student loan refinancing rates as low as % APR. Check your rate in 2 minutes.

Total

Monthly

Current

$0

Current

Consolidation

$0

Consolidation

Refinancing

$0

Refinancing

$0

Again, just like with consolidation, you may not want to refinance any federal loans because you’ll lose your eligibility for government-backed repayment plans. But if you don’t plan to use those programs and can financially benefit by refinancing to a lower interest rate, this may be a viable option for you.

Bottom line on federal and private student loan consolidation

While consolidating student loans may seem like an attractive option, there are many factors to consider in determining if it’s the right move for you. Make sure you ask the right questions and weigh all the pros and cons before deciding, so you can pay your student loans off as quickly and economically as possible.

Julie Evans contributed to this report.

Interested in refinancing student loans?

Here are the top 7 lenders of 2019!
LenderVariable APREligible Degrees 
Check out the testimonials and our in-depth reviews!
1 Important Disclosures for Earnest.

Earnest Disclosures

To qualify, you must be a U.S. citizen or possess a 10-year (non-conditional) Permanent Resident Card, reside in a state Earnest lends in, and satisfy our minimum eligibility criteria. You may find more information on loan eligibility here: https://www.earnest.com/eligibility. Not all applicants will be approved for a loan, and not all applicants will qualify for the lowest rate. Approval and interest rate depend on the review of a complete application.

Earnest fixed rate loan rates range from 3.45% APR (with Auto Pay) to 7.49% APR (with Auto Pay). Variable rate loan rates range from 2.14% APR (with Auto Pay) to 6.79% APR (with Auto Pay). For variable rate loans, although the interest rate will vary after you are approved, the interest rate will never exceed 8.95% for loan terms 10 years or less. For loan terms of 10 years to 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 9.95%. For loan terms over 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 11.95% (the maximum rates for these loans). Earnest variable interest rate loans are based on a publicly available index, the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). Your rate will be calculated each month by adding a margin between 1.82% and 5.50% to the one month LIBOR. The rate will not increase more than once per month. Earnest rate ranges are current as of September 6, 2019, and are subject to change based on market conditions and borrower eligibility.

Auto Pay discount: If you make monthly principal and interest payments by an automatic, monthly deduction from a savings or checking account, your rate will be reduced by one quarter of one percent (0.25%) for so long as you continue to make automatic, electronic monthly payments. This benefit is suspended during periods of deferment and forbearance.

The information provided on this page is updated as of 09/06/2019. Earnest reserves the right to change, pause, or terminate product offerings at any time without notice. Earnest loans are originated by Earnest Operations LLC. California Finance Lender License 6054788. NMLS # 1204917. Earnest Operations LLC is located at 302 2nd Street, Suite 401N, San Francisco, CA 94107. Terms and Conditions apply. Visit https://www.earnest.com/terms-of-service, email us at hello@earnest.com, or call 888-601-2801 for more information on our student loan refinance product.

© 2018 Earnest LLC. All rights reserved. Earnest LLC and its subsidiaries, including Earnest Operations LLC, are not sponsored by or agencies of the United States of America.


2 Important Disclosures for SoFi.

SoFi Disclosures

  1. Student loan Refinance: Fixed rates from 3.49% APR to 7.94% APR (with AutoPay). Variable rates from 2.14% APR to 7.84% APR (with AutoPay). Interest rates on variable rate loans are capped at either 8.95% or 9.95% depending on term of loan. See APR examples and terms. Lowest variable rate of 2.14% APR assumes current 1 month LIBOR rate of 2.14% minus 0.15% margin minus 0.25% ACH discount. Not all borrowers receive the lowest rate. If approved for a loan, the fixed or variable interest rate offered will depend on your creditworthiness, and the term of the loan and other factors, and will be within the ranges of rates listed above. For the SoFi variable rate loan, the 1-month LIBOR index will adjust monthly and the loan payment will be re-amortized and may change monthly. APRs for variable rate loans may increase after origination if the LIBOR index increases. See eligibility details. The SoFi 0.25% AutoPay interest rate reduction requires you to agree to make monthly principal and interest payments by an automatic monthly deduction from a savings or checking account. The benefit will discontinue and be lost for periods in which you do not pay by automatic deduction from a savings or checking account. *To check the rates and terms you qualify for, SoFi conducts a soft credit inquiry. Unlike hard credit inquiries, soft credit inquiries (or soft credit pulls) do not impact your credit score. Soft credit inquiries allow SoFi to show you what rates and terms SoFi can offer you up front. After seeing your rates, if you choose a product and continue your application, we will request your full credit report from one or more consumer reporting agencies, which is considered a hard credit inquiry. Hard credit inquiries (or hard credit pulls) are required for SoFi to be able to issue you a loan. In addition to requiring your explicit permission, these credit pulls may impact your credit score.  
  2. Terms and Conditions Apply. SOFI RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MODIFY OR DISCONTINUE PRODUCTS AND BENEFITS AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE. To qualify, a borrower must be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident in an eligible state and meet SoFi’s underwriting requirements. Not all borrowers receive the lowest rate. To qualify for the lowest rate, you must have a responsible financial history and meet other conditions. If approved, your actual rate will be within the range of rates listed above and will depend on a variety of factors, including term of loan, a responsible financial history, years of experience, income and other factors. Rates and Terms are subject to change at anytime without notice and are subject to state restrictions. SoFi refinance loans are private loans and do not have the same repayment options that the federal loan program offers such as Income Based Repayment or Income Contingent Repayment or PAYE. Licensed by the Department of Business Oversight under the California Financing Law License No. 6054612. SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Lending Corp., NMLS # 1121636. (www.nmlsconsumeraccess.org)

3 Important Disclosures for Laurel Road.

Laurel Road Disclosures

FIXED APR
Fixed rate options consist of a range from 3.50% per year to 5.55% per year for a 5-year term, 4.00% per year to 6.00% per year for a 7-year term, 4.30% per year to 6.40% per year for a 10-year term, 4.60% per year to 6.80% per year for a 15-year term, or 5.05% per year to 7.02% per year for a 20-year term, with no origination fees. The fixed interest rate will apply until the loan is paid in full (whether before or after default, and whether before or after the scheduled maturity date of the loan). The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 3.50% per year to 5.55% per year for a 5-year term would be from $184.00 to $193.00. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 4.00% per year to 6.00% per year for a 7-year term would be from $138 to $148. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 4.30% per year to 6.40% per year for a 10-year term would be from $104 to $115. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 4.60% per year to 6.80% per year for a 15-year term would be from $79 to $91. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 5.05% per year to 7.02% per year for a 20-year term would be from $68 to $80.

However, if the borrower chooses to make monthly payments automatically by electronic funds transfer (EFT) from a bank account, the fixed rate will decrease by 0.25%, and will increase back up to the regular fixed interest rate described in the preceding paragraph if the borrower stops making (or we stop accepting) monthly payments automatically by EFT from the designated borrower’s bank account.

VARIABLE APR
Variable rate options consist of a range from 2.43% per year to 6.05% per year for a 5-year term, 3.75% per year to 6.10% per year for a 7-year term, 4.00% per year to 6.15% per year for a 10-year term, 4.25% per year to 6.40% per year for a 15-year term, or 4.50% per year to 6.65% per year for a 20-year term, with no origination fees. APR is subject to increase after consummation. The variable interest rate will change on the first day of every month (“Change Date”) if the Current Index changes. The variable interest rates are based on a Current Index, which is the 1-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) (currency in US dollars), as published on The Wall Street Journal’s website. The variable interest rates and Annual Percentage Rate (APR) will increase or decrease when the 1-month LIBOR index changes. The variable interest rates are calculated by adding a margin ranging from 0.25% to 3.80% for the 5-year term loan, 1.50% to 3.85% for the 7-year term loan, 1.75% to 3.90% for the 10-year term loan, 2.00% to 4.15% for the 15-year term loan, and 2.25% to 4.40% for the 20-year term loan, respectively, to the 1-month LIBOR index published on the 25th day of each month immediately preceding each “Change Date,” as defined above, rounded to two decimal places, with no origination fees. If the 25th day of the month is not a business day or is a US federal holiday, the reference date will be the most recent date preceding the 25th day of the month that is a business day. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 2.43% per year to 6.05% per year for a 5-year term would be from $179 to $195. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 3.75% per year to 6.10% per year for a 7-year term would be from $137 to $148. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 4.00% per year to 6.15% per year for a 10-year term would be from $103 to $114. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 4.25% per year to 6.40% per year for a 15-year term would be from $77 to $88. The monthly payment for a sample $10,000 loan at a range of 4.50% per year to 6.65% per year for a 20-year term would be from $65 to $77.

However, if the borrower chooses to make monthly payments automatically by electronic funds transfer (EFT) from a bank account, the variable rate will decrease by 0.25%, and will increase back up to the regular variable interest rate described in the preceding paragraph if the borrower stops making (or we stop accepting) monthly payments automatically by EFT from the designated borrower’s bank account.

All credit products are subject to credit approval.

Laurel Road began originating student loans in 2013 and has since helped thousands of professionals with undergraduate and postgraduate degrees consolidate and refinance more than $4 billion in federal and private school loans. Laurel Road also offers a suite of online graduate school loan products and personal loans that help simplify lending through customized technology and personalized service. In April 2019, Laurel Road was acquired by KeyBank, one of the nation’s largest bank-based financial services companies. Laurel Road is a brand of KeyBank National Association offering online lending products in all 50 U.S. states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. All loans are provided by KeyBank National Association, a nationally chartered bank. Member FDIC. For more information, visit www.laurelroad.com.


4 Important Disclosures for Splash Financial.

Splash Financial Disclosures

Terms and Conditions apply. Splash reserves the right to modify or discontinue products and benefits at any time without notice. Rates and terms are also subject to change at any time without notice. Offers are subject to credit approval. To qualify, a borrower must be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident in an eligible state and meet applicable underwriting requirements. Not all borrowers receive the lowest rate. Lowest rates are reserved for the highest qualified borrowers.


5 Important Disclosures for CommonBond.

CommonBond Disclosures

Offered terms are subject to change. Loans are offered by CommonBond Lending, LLC (NMLS # 1175900). If you are approved for a loan, the interest rate offered will depend on your credit profile, your application, the loan term selected and will be within the ranges of rates shown. All Annual Percentage Rates (APRs) displayed assume borrowers enroll in auto pay and account for the 0.25% reduction in interest rate. All variable rates are based on a 1-month LIBOR assumption of 2.19% effective August 10, 2019.


6 Important Disclosures for LendKey.

LendKey Disclosures

Refinancing via LendKey.com is only available for applicants with qualified private education loans from an eligible institution. Loans that were used for exam preparation classes, including, but not limited to, loans for LSAT, MCAT, GMAT, and GRE preparation, are not eligible for refinancing with a lender via LendKey.com. If you currently have any of these exam preparation loans, you should not include them in an application to refinance your student loans on this website. Applicants must be either U.S. citizens or Permanent Residents in an eligible state to qualify for a loan. Certain membership requirements (including the opening of a share account and any applicable association fees in connection with membership) may apply in the event that an applicant wishes to accept a loan offer from a credit union lender. Lenders participating on LendKey.com reserve the right to modify or discontinue the products, terms, and benefits offered on this website at any time without notice. LendKey Technologies, Inc. is not affiliated with, nor does it endorse, any educational institution.


7 Important Disclosures for College Ave.

College Ave Disclosures

College Ave Student Loans products are made available through either Firstrust Bank, member FDIC or M.Y. Safra Bank, FSB, member FDIC. All loans are subject to individual approval and adherence to underwriting guidelines. Program restrictions, other terms, and conditions apply.

1College Ave Refi Education loans are not currently available to residents of Maine.

2All rates shown include autopay discount. The 0.25% auto-pay interest rate reduction applies as long as a valid bank account is designated for required monthly payments. Variable rates may increase after consummation.

3$5,000 is the minimum requirement to refinance. The maximum loan amount is $300,000 for those with medical, dental, pharmacy or veterinary doctorate degrees, and $150,000 for all other undergraduate or graduate degrees.

4This informational repayment example uses typical loan terms for a refi borrower with a Full Principal & Interest Repayment and a 10-year repayment term, has a $40,000 loan and a 5.5% Annual Percentage Rate (“APR”): 120 monthly payments of $434.11 while in the repayment period, for a total amount of payments of $52,092.61. Loans will never have a full principal and interest monthly payment of less than $50. Your actual rates and repayment terms may vary.

Information advertised valid as of 08/01/2019. Variable interest rates may increase after consummation.

2.14% – 6.79%1Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit Earnest

2.14% – 7.84%2Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit SoFi

2.43% – 6.65%3Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit Laurel Road

2.43% – 7.60%4Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit Splash

2.14% – 8.01%5Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit CommonBond

2.06% – 8.93%6Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit Lendkey

2.74% – 7.24%7Undergrad
& Graduate

Visit College Ave

Our team at Student Loan Hero works hard to find and recommend products and services that we believe are of high quality. We sometimes earn a sales commission or advertising fee when recommending various products and services to you. Similar to when you are being sold any product or service, be sure to read the fine print to help you understand what you are buying. Be sure to consult with a licensed professional if you have any concerns. Student Loan Hero is not a lender or investment advisor. We are not involved in the loan approval or investment process, nor do we make credit or investment related decisions. The rates and terms listed on our website are estimates and are subject to change at any time.