Note that the situation for student loans has changed due to the impact of the coronavirus outbreak and relief efforts from the government, student loan lenders and others. Check out our Student Loan Hero Coronavirus Information Center for additional news and details.
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In June 2010, my financial life was in turmoil. My husband had accepted a job in another state, and we were expecting our first child. To make matters more complicated, it took us nearly a year to sell our old house, so we ended up paying two mortgages at once for quite some time.
It didn’t take us long to realize that we needed to hit the pause button on our monthly student loan payments. We compared deferment versus forbearance as potential repayment options. Thankfully, we qualified for student loan forbearance, which gave us the breathing room we needed until our financial situation stabilized.
If you’re facing similar economic turmoil, you might be wondering if you should pursue student loan forbearance or deferment. Or, maybe you’re wondering what the differences are between deferment versus forbearance.
For a comparative breakdown of forbearance versus deferment, including what kinds of loans qualify for each option and which one might be right for you, let’s look at these four topics:
- Qualifying loans for deferment vs. forbearance
- Characteristics of deferment vs. forbearance for federal student loans
- How to apply for deferment vs. forbearance for federal loans
- What to consider before applying for deferment or forbearance
The first thing to remember is that deferment and forbearance are both available for federal student loans. Federal student loans come in many forms, such as Staffordloans and PLUS loans. Although the Perkins loan program ended in September 2017, older Perkins loans are still eligible for forbearance and deferment.
To qualify for deferment or forbearance, you cannot be in default on your federal student loans.
|Administrative forbearance on federal loans during the coronavirus pandemic|
|Only federal direct loans (not Perkins or federal family education loans) were eligible for the student loan interest freeze brought on by the COVID-19 crisis. For millions of these borrowers, payments were paused without penalty and interest rates temporarily fell to zero. The moratorium began in March 2020 and was slated to expire in September 2021. After its expiration, federal loan borrowers of all stripes could still access standard deferment and forbearance options.|
If you have private student loans, you may not be eligible for either deferment or forbearance, though some lenders do offer these safety nets.
|5 Private Student Loan Options That Let You Pause Payments|
Deferment and forbearance are two different repayment processes. They are similar in that both options allow you to postpone your monthly federal student loan payments.
But they are different in some very important ways, so bear in mind when comparing deferment versus forbearance.
When you defer payments, you postpone your monthly dues on subsidized federal loans without accruing interest. You also don’t have to pay interest on the subsidized portion of direct consolidation loans or FFEL consolidation loans during deferment.
If you have unsubsidized loans, a deferment allows you to postpone payments, but the interest will still accrue on your loans during the deferment period. You may pay the interest during your deferment period in order to avoid having it capitalized (added to your principal), but you aren’t required to do so.
Borrowers may be eligible for deferment under the following circumstances:
- You are enrolled at least half-time in an eligible postsecondary school.
- You are enrolled in an approved graduate program.
- You are enrolled in an approved rehabilitation training program.
- You are unemployed or unable to find full-time employment. This type of deferment is limited to three years.
- You are experiencing economic hardship, as defined by federal regulations. This includes receiving federal public assistance benefits (such as food stamps), or if your monthly income does not exceed the larger of the federal minimum wage rate or 150% of the poverty line income for your family size and state. This type of deferment is also limited to three years. Peace Corps service is covered by this circumstance.
- You are currently on active duty with the military, or you have been on active duty with the military within the last 13 months.
- You are currently undergoing cancer treatment.
To receive a deferment, you must apply directly to your loan servicer. For information on how to contact your loan servicer, you can access the StudentAid.gov website. Deferments are typically granted in six-month increments.
If you believe you are eligible for deferment, use our student loan deferment calculator below to calculate how much interest you’ll accrue by deferring your student loans.
Student Loan Deferment Calculator
Forbearance may be an option for borrowers who don’t qualify for deferment. When your loans go on forbearance, you may pause student loan payments, usually for around 12 months. However, interest will accrue on your loans, whether they are subsidized or unsubsidized. That accrued interest will be capitalized unless you pay the interest during the forbearance period.
There are some situations where forbearance is mandatory, meaning your loan servicer is required to offer you forbearance.
Mandatory forbearance may be available in the following circumstances:
- You are serving in a medical or dental internship or residency program.
- Your total student loan payment each month is equal to 20% or more of your total monthly gross income.
- You are serving in a national service position through Americorps.
- You are eligible for teacher loan forgiveness.
- You are eligible for the U.S. Department of Defense Student Loan Repayment Program.
- You are a member of the National Guard and have been activated by a governor, but you are not eligible for a military deferment.
If none of these circumstances apply to you, you may be eligible for a general, or discretionary, forbearance. Those are granted at your lender’s discretion, based upon reasons such as the borrower’s financial hardship, medical expenses or a change in work situation.
In our case, my husband and I qualified for a discretionary forbearance based upon financial hardship since I was unemployed by choice (and because of the timing of my son’s birth), rather than due to an inability to find full-time work.
When you’re looking to pause your payments through either deferment or forbearance, even if the reason is a mandatory one, you’ll still have to apply for either option through your student loan servicer. The process is rarely automatic.
|Forms for request a federal student loan deferment|
|● Economic hardship
● Returning to school
● Graduate fellowship
|● Military service
● Parent PLUS borrowing
● Rehabilitation training
● Cancer treatment
|While there aren’t specific forms to request a federal loan forbearance, be expected to provide documentation.|
You may also be required to submit documentation to support your request and demonstrate that you meet the eligibility requirements. When my husband and I requested forbearance, we needed to provide documents showing that we were paying two mortgages at one time in order to prove that we were experiencing financial hardship.
Once you’ve submitted your request for deferment or forbearance, you’ll need to continue paying your monthly student loan payments until you hear that your request has been granted. If you fail to make payments and your deferment or forbearance request is denied, you’ll be considered delinquent and risk defaulting on your loan.
While applying for student loan deferment or forbearance can be a viable option for many people, it may not always be the right solution for your individual situation. Here are some questions to ask yourself before making this decision.
- Is my current financial situation temporary? Something like a job loss or long-term illness can undoubtedly make your financial future unpredictable. But if you’re confident you’ll get things under control within a certain time frame, then deferment or forbearance could be a good option for you.
- Do I qualify for deferment or forbearance? Before making the decision to pursue either repayment option, you’ll need to make sure you meet the specific criteria required to qualify. As previously mentioned, factors such as the type of loan, your specific financial hardship and other circumstances will be considered.
- Is postponing my student loan payments an absolute must? If you can find a way to simply restructure your budget and/or adjust your current repayment schedule, it could be a much simpler way to get a handle on your student loan debt than applying for deferment or forbearance.
If you do decide to apply, understanding the differences between deferment versus forbearance is an important part of being an informed borrower.
|How long does it last?||From six months to three years, depending on the deferment type||Maximum 12 months at a time|
|Will interest pile up?||No (for subsidized loans), yes (for unsubsidized)||Yes|
|Will it affect my credit?||No||No|
Whether or not you’re currently facing an economic hurdle, the ability to pause student loan payments is one of the biggest perks of federal student loans. Make sure you know all your options so you can be ready if you ever need to take a break from making your student loan payments.
This report was originally published Dec. 20, 2016. Andrew Penitis and Emilia Benton contributed to this report.
Interested in refinancing student loans?Here are the top 9 lenders of 2022!
|Lender||Variable APR||Eligible Degrees|
|1.74% – 8.70%1||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.74% – 7.99%2||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.74% – 7.99%3||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.89% – 5.90%4||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.74% – 7.99%5||Undergrad & Graduate|
|2.05% – 5.25%6||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.86% – 6.01%||Undergrad |
|N/A7||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.99% – 8.38%8||Undergrad & Graduate|
|Check out the testimonials and our in-depth reviews!
1 Important Disclosures for Splash Financial.
Splash Financial Disclosures
Terms and Conditions apply. Splash reserves the right to modify or discontinue products and benefits at any time without notice. Rates and terms are also subject to change at any time without notice. Offers are subject to credit approval. To qualify, a borrower must be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident in an eligible state and meet applicable underwriting requirements. Not all borrowers receive the lowest rate. Lowest rates are reserved for the highest qualified borrowers. If approved, your actual rate will be within a range of rates and will depend on a variety of factors, including term of loan, a responsible financial history, income and other factors. Refinancing or consolidating private and federal student loans may not be the right decision for everyone. Federal loans carry special benefits not available for loans made through Splash Financial, for example, public service loan forgiveness and economic hardship programs, fee waivers and rebates on the principal, which may not be accessible to you after you refinance. The rates displayed may include a 0.25% autopay discount
The information you provide to us is an inquiry to determine whether we or our lenders can make a loan offer that meets your needs. If we or any of our lending partners has an available loan offer for you, you will be invited to submit a loan application to the lender for its review. We do not guarantee that you will receive any loan offers or that your loan application will be approved. Offers are subject to credit approval and are available only to U.S. citizens or permanent residents who meet applicable underwriting requirements. Not all borrowers will receive the lowest rates, which are available to the most qualified borrowers. Participating lenders, rates and terms are subject to change at any time without notice.
To check the rates and terms you qualify for, Splash Financial conducts a soft credit pull that will not affect your credit score. However, if you choose a product and continue your application, the lender will request your full credit report from one or more consumer reporting agencies, which is considered a hard credit pull and may affect your credit.
Splash Financial and our lending partners reserve the right to modify or discontinue products and benefits at any time without notice. To qualify, a borrower must be a U.S. citizen and meet our lending partner’s underwriting requirements. Lowest rates are reserved for the highest qualified borrowers. This information is current as of May 4, 2022.
2 Rate range above includes optional 0.25% Auto Pay discount. Important Disclosures for Earnest.
Student Loan Refinance Interest Rate Disclosure Actual rate and available repayment terms will vary based on your income. Fixed rates range from 2.99% APR to 8.24% APR (excludes 0.25% Auto Pay discount). Variable rates range from 1.99% APR to 8.24% APR (excludes 0.25% Auto Pay discount). Earnest variable interest rate student loan refinance loans are based on a publicly available index, the 30-day Average Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The variable rate is based on the rate published on the 25th day, or the next business day, of the preceding calendar month, rounded to the nearest hundredth of a percent. The rate will not increase more than once per month. The maximum rate for your loan is 8.95% if your loan term is 10 years or less. For loan terms of more than 10 years to 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 9.95%. For loan terms over 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 11.95%. Please note, we are not able to offer variable rate loans in AK, IL, MN, NH, OH, TN, and TX. Let us know if you have any questions and feel free to reach out directly to our team.
3 Important Disclosures for SoFi.
Fixed rates range from 3.49% APR to 7.99% APR with a 0.25% autopay discount. Variable rates from 1.74% APR to 7.99% APR with a 0.25% autopay discount. Unless required to be lower to comply with applicable law, Variable Interest rates on 5-, 7-, and 10-year terms are capped at 8.95% APR; 15- and 20-year terms are capped at 9.95% APR. Your actual rate will be within the range of rates listed above and will depend on the term you select, evaluation of your creditworthiness, income, presence of a co-signer and a variety of other factors. Lowest rates reserved for the most creditworthy borrowers. For the SoFi variable-rate product, the variable interest rate for a given month is derived by adding a margin to the 30-day average SOFR index, published two business days preceding such calendar month, rounded up to the nearest one hundredth of one percent (0.01% or 0.0001). APRs for variable-rate loans may increase after origination if the SOFR index increases. The SoFi 0.25% autopay interest rate reduction requires you to agree to make monthly principal and interest payments by an automatic monthly deduction from a savings or checking account. This benefit will discontinue and be lost for periods in which you do not pay by automatic deduction from a savings or checking account. The benefit lowers your interest rate but does not change the amount of your monthly payment. This benefit is suspended during periods of deferment and forbearance. Autopay is not required to receive a loan from SoFi.
4 Important Disclosures for Laurel Road.
Laurel Road Disclosures
All credit products are subject to credit approval.
Laurel Road began originating student loans in 2013 and has since helped thousands of professionals with undergraduate and postgraduate degrees consolidate and refinance more than $4 billion in federal and private school loans. Laurel Road also offers a suite of online graduate school loan products and personal loans that help simplify lending through customized technology and personalized service. In April 2019, Laurel Road was acquired by KeyBank, one of the nation’s largest bank-based financial services companies. Laurel Road is a brand of KeyBank National Association offering online lending products in all 50 U.S. states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. All loans are provided by KeyBank National Association, a nationally chartered bank. Member FDIC. For more information, visit www.laurelroad.com.
As used throughout these Terms & Conditions, the term “Lender” refers to KeyBank National Association and its affiliates, agents, guaranty insurers, investors, assigns, and successors in interest.
Assumptions: Repayment examples above assume a loan amount of $10,000 with repayment beginning immediately following disbursement. Repayment examples do not include the 0.25% AutoPay Discount.
Annual Percentage Rate (“APR”): This term represents the actual cost of financing to the borrower over the life of the loan expressed as a yearly rate.
Interest Rate: A simple annual rate that is applied to an unpaid balance.
Variable Rates: The current index for variable rate loans is derived from the one-month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and changes in the LIBOR index may cause your monthly payment to increase. Borrowers who take out a term of 5, 7, or 10 years will have a maximum interest rate of 9%, those who take out a 15 or 20-year variable loan will have a maximum interest rate of 10%.
KEYBANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MODIFY OR DISCONTINUE PRODUCTS AND BENEFITS AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE.
This information is current as of April 29, 2021. Information and rates are subject to change without notice.
5 Important Disclosures for Navient.
6 Important Disclosures for LendKey.
Refinancing via LendKey.com is only available for applicants with qualified private education loans from an eligible institution. Loans that were used for exam preparation classes, including, but not limited to, loans for LSAT, MCAT, GMAT, and GRE preparation, are not eligible for refinancing with a lender via LendKey.com. If you currently have any of these exam preparation loans, you should not include them in an application to refinance your student loans on this website. Applicants must be either U.S. citizens or Permanent Residents in an eligible state to qualify for a loan. Certain membership requirements (including the opening of a share account and any applicable association fees in connection with membership) may apply in the event that an applicant wishes to accept a loan offer from a credit union lender. Lenders participating on LendKey.com reserve the right to modify or discontinue the products, terms, and benefits offered on this website at any time without notice. LendKey Technologies, Inc. is not affiliated with, nor does it endorse, any educational institution.
Subject to floor rate and may require the automatic payments be made from a checking or savings account with the lender. The rate reduction will be removed and the rate will be increased by 0.25% upon any cancellation or failed collection attempt of the automatic payment and will be suspended during any period of deferment or forbearance. As a result, during the forbearance or suspension period, and/or if the automatic payment is canceled, any increase will take the form of higher payments. The lowest advertised variable APR is only available for loan terms of 5 years and is reserved for applicants with FICO scores of at least 810.
As of 5/17/2022 student loan refinancing rates range from 2.05% APR – 5.25% Variable APR with AutoPay and 2.49% APR – 7.93% Fixed APR with AutoPay.
7 Important Disclosures for PenFed.
Fixed Rate Loan Terms: 5 years/60 monthly payments, 8 years/96 monthly payments, 12 years/144 monthly payments or 15 years/180 monthly payments. Annual Percentage Rate is the cost of credit calculating the interest rate, loan amount, repayment term and the timing of payments. Fixed rates range from 3.29% to 5.43% APR. Rates are subject to change without notice. Fixed APR: Fixed rates will not change during the term. This rate is expressed as an APR. Since there are no fees associated with this loan offer, the APR is the same percentage as the actual interest rate of the loan. These rates are subject to additional terms and conditions, and rates are subject to change at any time without notice. Such changes will only apply to applications taken after the effective date of change.
8 Important Disclosures for CitizensBank.
Education Refinance Loan Rate Disclosure: Variable interest rates range from 1.99%-8.38% (1.99%-8.38% APR). Fixed interest rates range from 2.99%-8.63% (2.99%-8.63% APR).
IS Variable Rate Disclosure: Variable Rates advertised are based on the one-month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) published in The Wall Street Journal on the twenty-fifth day, or the next business day, of the preceding calendar month. As of December 1, 2021, the one-month LIBOR rate is 0.09%. Variable interest rates will fluctuate over the term of the loan with changes in the LIBOR rate, and will vary based on applicable terms, level of degree and presence of a co-signer. Your final variable rate may be based upon the 30-day average SOFR index, as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The maximum variable rate is the greater of 21.00% or Prime Rate plus 9.00%.
ERL Variable Rate Disclosure: Variable interest rates are based on the 30-day average Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) index, as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. As of May 1, 2022, the 30-day average SOFR index is 0.29%. Variable interest rates will fluctuate over the term of the loan with changes in the SOFR index, and will vary based on applicable terms, level of degree and presence of a co-signer. The maximum variable interest rate is the greater of 21.00% or the prime rate plus 9.00%.
Fixed Rate Disclosure: Fixed rate ranges are based on applicable terms, level of degree, and presence of a co-signer.
Lowest Rate Disclosure: Lowest rates are only available for the most creditworthy applicants, require a 5-year repayment term, immediate repayment, a graduate or medical degree (where applicable), and include our Loyalty and Automatic Payment discounts of 0.25 percentage points each, as outlined in the Loyalty Discount and Automatic Payment Discount disclosures. Rates are subject to additional terms and conditions, and are subject to change at any time without notice. Such changes will only apply to applications taken after the effective date of change.
Federal Loan vs. Private Loan Benefits: Some federal student loans include unique benefits that the borrower may not receive with a private student loan, some of which we do not offer. Borrowers should carefully review federal benefits, especially if they work in public service, are in the military, are considering possible loan forgiveness options, are currently on or considering income based repayment options or are concerned about a steady source of future income and would want to lower their payments at some time in the future. When the borrower refinances, they waive any current and potential future benefits of their federal loans. For more information about federal student loan benefits and federal loan consolidation, visit http://studentaid.ed.gov/. We also have several resources available to help the borrower make a decision on our website including Should I Refinance My Student Loans? and our FAQs. Should I Refinance My Student Loans? includes a comparison of federal and private student loan benefits that we encourage the borrower to review.