The 50/30/20 rule is a budgeting approach that distributes your finances toward different goals in a simple and practical way. Popularized by U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren, 50/30/20 budgeting helps you figure out how much money to set aside for your monthly needs, wants and savings goals.
If you’re struggling with managing your finances, here’s what you need to know about the 50/30/20 rule:
The 50/30/20 rule helps you organize your budget with the big picture in mind. If other budgeting methods — like tracking every expense — discourage you, this can be a good option.
To start, calculate your after-tax income. Employers generally withhold federal income, Social Security and Medicare taxes from employee paychecks. (State income taxes may also be withheld depending on where you live.) With the 50/30/20 budgeting rule, it’s important to note: Other paycheck deductions — whether retirement, medical, dental, vision or something similar — should be added back to your after-tax income calculation.
Now that you have your after-tax income handy, you’ll further break down your expenses using the 50/30/20 budget:
- 50% on needs
- 30% on wants
- 20% on savings
Needs are your main fixed monthly expenses, such as:
- Rent or mortgage
- Minimum debt payments (student loans, car loans, etc.)
- Child care
These recurring costs are essential to keeping a roof over your head and having a functioning household.
The reason these must-haves occupy 50% of your income is twofold. It ensures that you can sustain your essentials. For example, if an apartment with rent that’s $2,200 pushes your monthly needs budget beyond 50% of your after-tax income, it’s an indication that you may need to settle on a cheaper place to live.
A 50% budget for must-haves also protects you in moments of financial uncertainty. Although your income may be stable now, an unexpected layoff or disability could suddenly cut your pay dramatically. By maintaining a modest needs budget, you’re in a safer financial position.
Dedicating funds for nonessentials that you want gives you just enough to enjoy the money you’ve earned. Purchases that can be classified as wants include:
- Luxury pairs of shoes
- Fitness memberships
- Netflix subscriptions
- Weekly happy hours with friends
However you want to use this “fun” budget is up to you, as long as you stay disciplined in capping your spending in this category to 30% of your monthly after-tax funds.
In the savings category, you’re working toward allocating 20% of your monthly income toward long-term planning and goals. This often includes:
- Saving toward an emergency fund so you have a cushion in the event of unforeseen financial hardship
- Putting aside money in a retirement account
- Directing funds toward investments
After building a rainy-day fund, you might also consider using the remaining 20% of this category toward paying down your debt. For example, in addition to setting aside minimum payments in your needs budget, you can get rid of debt faster by making extra payments toward debts.
Let’s say your monthly after-tax income is $4,500, including deductions that were removed. Based on this amount:
- 50% for your needs is $2,250
- 30% for your wants is $1,350
- 20% for your saving is $900
In this 50/20/30 budget example, your expenses are as follows:
- Rent: $1,300
- Utilities: $200
- Groceries: $400
- Gas: $100
- Car insurance: $80
- Car payment: $375
- Premium fitness membership: $175
- Concerts (including food and beverages): $250
- Dining out: $650
- Clothing: $100
- Credit card minimum payment: $75
- Salon services: $100
- 401(k) contribution: $200
- Emergency fund: $50
- Health care: $150
- Dog care expenses: $50
In this scenario:
- Your needs — rent, utilities, groceries, car payment, gas, car insurance, health care, credit card payment and dog care — total $2,730
- Your wants — fitness membership, concerts, dining out, clothing and salon services — total $1,275
- Your savings — retirement and emergency fund — total $250
You’re spending $480 more on needs than the 50/30/20 budget allows. On the other hand, you have $75 left in your wants budget and are severely lacking in savings, with the potential to save $650 more a month.
The 50/30/20 rule makes it clear that you may need to temper your expenses under your needs category and funnel those resources into your savings.
- Traditional budget: This tracks your budget monthly or year over year, typically via a spreadsheet. Starting with your gross income, you’ll track taxes, payroll deductions, spending and borrowing to observe when you’re under or over your net income.
- Zero-based budget: This involves making the dollar amount of your expenses match the dollar amount of your income. The result is having $0 unaccounted for at the end of the month. Every dollar, therefore, serves a purpose or strategy.
- Pay-yourself-first budget: This targets your retirement and savings goals first, often with the help of automation. Any monthly income that’s remaining can be used how you wish.
- 80/20 budget: This allocates 20% of your after-tax funds toward savings. You can spend the remaining 80% in any way you see fit, whether it’s toward bills or entertainment subscriptions. It’s a similar principle to the 50/30/20 budget — but a little simpler.
Who popularized the 50/30/20/rule? The 50/30/20 rule was made popular by U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren and her daughter, Amelia Warren Tyagi, in their co-authored book, “All Your Worth: The Ultimate Lifetime Money Plan.”
Do 401(k) contributions count in 50/30/20 rule calculations? Yes, 401(k) contributions are included in the 50/30/20 budget planner under the 20% savings category.
Are there 50/30/20 budget apps that can help? If you’re looking for a 50/30/20 budget app, one option is the Moneywyn Personal Finance App. The free budgeting app is available for iPhone users in the Apple App Store.
Are there 50/30/20 calculators available? Some financial institutions offer 50/30/20 calculators to help you budget your money using this approach. For example, Northeast Credit Union and Georgia United Credit Union provide simple 50/30/20 budget calculators. Enter your monthly after-tax income to see how much you have for each category.
Eric Rosenberg contributed to this report.
Interested in refinancing student loans?Here are the top 5 lenders of 2020!
|Lender||Variable APR||Eligible Degrees|
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1 Important Disclosures for Laurel Road.
Laurel Road Disclosures
Laurel Road is a brand of KeyBank National Association offering online lending products in all 50 U.S. states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. Mortgage lending is not offered in Puerto Rico. All loans are provided by KeyBank National Association.
ANNUAL PERCENTAGE RATE (“APR”)
There are no origination fees or prepayment penalties associated with the loan. Lender may assess a late fee if any part of a payment is not received within 15 days of the payment due date. Any late fee assessed shall not exceed 5% of the late payment or $28, whichever is less. A borrower may be charged $20 for any payment (including a check or an electronic payment) that is returned unpaid due to non-sufficient funds (NSF) or a closed account.
For bachelor’s degrees and higher, up to 100% of outstanding private and federal student loans (minimum $5,000) are eligible for refinancing. If you are refinancing greater than $300,000 in student loan debt, Lender may refinance the loans into 2 or more new loans.
ELIGIBILITY & ELIGIBLE LOANS
Borrower, and Co-signer if applicable, must be a U.S. Citizen or Permanent Resident with a valid I-551 card (which must show a minimum of 10 years between “Resident Since” date and “Card Expires” date or has no expiration date); state that they are of at least borrowing age in the state of residence at the time of application; and meet Lender underwriting criteria (including, for example, employment, debt-to-income, disposable income, and credit history requirements).
Graduates may refinance any unsubsidized or subsidized Federal or private student loan that was used exclusively for qualified higher education expenses (as defined in 26 USC Section 221) at an accredited U.S. undergraduate or graduate school. Any federal loans refinanced with Lender are private loans and do not have the same repayment options that federal loan program offers such as Income Based Repayment or Income Contingent Repayment.
All loans must be in grace or repayment status and cannot be in default. Borrower must have graduated or be enrolled in good standing in the final term preceding graduation from an accredited Title IV U.S. school and must be employed, or have an eligible offer of employment. Parents looking to refinance loans taken out on behalf of a child should refer to https://www.laurelroad.com/refinance-student-loans/refinance-parent-plus-loans/ for applicable terms and conditions.
For Associates Degrees: Only associates degrees earned in one of the following are eligible for refinancing: Cardiovascular Technologist (CVT); Dental Hygiene; Diagnostic Medical Sonography; EMT/Paramedics; Nuclear Technician; Nursing; Occupational Therapy Assistant; Pharmacy Technician; Physical Therapy Assistant; Radiation Therapy; Radiologic/MRI Technologist; Respiratory Therapy; or Surgical Technologist. To refinance an Associates degree, a borrower must also either be currently enrolled and in the final term of an associate degree program at a Title IV eligible school with an offer of employment in the same field in which they will receive an eligible associate degree OR have graduated from a school that is Title IV eligible with an eligible associate and have been employed, for a minimum of 12 months, in the same field of study of the associate degree earned.
The interest rate you are offered will depend on your credit profile, income, and total debt payments as well as your choice of fixed or variable and choice of term. For applicants who are currently medical or dental residents, your rate offer may also vary depending on whether you have secured employment for after residency.
The repayment of any refinanced student loan will commence (1) immediately after disbursement by us, or (2) after any grace or in-school deferment period, existing prior to refinancing and/or consolidation with us, has expired.
POSTPONING OR REDUCING PAYMENTS
After loan disbursement, if a borrower documents a qualifying economic hardship, we may agree in our discretion to allow for full or partial forbearance of payments for one or more 3-month time periods (not to exceed 12 months in the aggregate during the term of your loan), provided that we receive acceptable documentation (including updating documentation) of the nature and expected duration of the borrower’s economic hardship.
We may agree under certain circumstances to allow a borrower to make $100/month payments for a period of time immediately after loan disbursement if the borrower is employed full-time as an intern, resident, or similar postgraduate trainee at the time of loan disbursement. These payments may not be enough to cover all of the interest that accrues on the loan. Unpaid accrued interest will be added to your loan and monthly payments of principal and interest will begin when the post-graduate training program ends.
We may agree under certain circumstances to allow postponement (deferral) of monthly payments of principal and interest for a period of time immediately following loan disbursement (not to exceed 6 months after the borrower’s graduation with an eligible degree), if the borrower is an eligible student in the borrower’s final term at the time of loan disbursement or graduated less than 6 months before loan disbursement, and has accepted an offer of (or has already begun) full-time employment.
If Lender agrees (in its sole discretion) to postpone or reduce any monthly payment(s) for a period of time, interest on the loan will continue to accrue for each day principal is owed. Although the borrower might not be required to make payments during such a period, the borrower may continue to make payments during such a period. Making payments, or paying some of the interest, will reduce the total amount that will be required to be paid over the life of the loan. Interest not paid during any period when Lender has agreed to postpone or reduce any monthly payment will be added to the principal balance through capitalization (compounding) at the end of such a period, one month before the borrower is required to resume making regular monthly payments.
KEYBANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MODIFY OR DISCONTINUE PRODUCTS AND BENEFITS AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE.
This information is current as of March 4, 2020 and is subject to change.
2 Important Disclosures for Splash Financial.
Splash Financial Disclosures
Splash Financial loans are available through arrangements with lending partners. Your loan application will be submitted to the lending partner and be evaluated at their sole discretion. For loans where a credit union is the lender, or a purchaser of the loan, in order to refinance your loans, you will need to become a credit union member.
The Splash Student Loan Refinance Program is not offered or endorsed by any college or university. Neither Splash Financial nor the lending partner are affiliated with or endorse any college or university listed on this website.
You should review the benefits of your federal student loan; it may offer specific benefits that a private refinance/consolidation loan may not offer. If you work in the public sector, are in the military or taking advantage of a federal department of relief program, such as income based repayment or public service forgiveness, you may not want to refinance, as these benefits do not transfer to private refinance/consolidation loans.
Splash Financial and our lending partners reserve the right to modify or discontinue products and benefits at any time without notice. To qualify, a borrower must be a U.S. citizen and meet our lending partner’s underwriting requirements. Lowest rates are reserved for the highest qualified borrowers. This information is current as of May 1, 2020.
Fixed APR: Annual Percentage Rate [APR] is the cost of credit calculating the interest rate, loan amount, repayment term and the timing of payments. Fixed Rate options range from 2.88% (without autopay) to 7.27% (without autopay) and will vary based on application terms, level of degree and presence of a co-signer. Rates are subject to change without notice. Fixed rate options without an autopay discount consist of a range from 2.88% per year to 6.21% per year for a 5-year term, 3.40% per year to 6.25% per year for a 7-year term, 3.45% to 5.08% for a 8-year term, 3.89% per year to 6.65% per year for a 10-year term, 4.18% per year to 5.11% per year for a 12-year term, 4.20% per year to 7.05% per year for a 15-year term, or 4.51% per year to 7.27% per year for a 20-year term, with no origination fees. The fixed interest rate will apply until the loan is paid in full (whether before or after default, and whether before or after the scheduled maturity date of the loan).
Variable APR: Annual Percentage Rate [APR] is the cost of credit calculating the interest rate, loan amount, repayment term and the timing of payments. Variable rate options range from 1.99% (with autopay) to 7.10% (without autopay) and will vary based on application terms, level of degree and presence of a co-signer. Our lowest rate option is shown with a 0.25% autopay discount. Our highest rate option does not include an autopay discount. The variable rates are based on the Variable rate index, is based on the one-month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) published in The Wall Street Journal on the twenty-fifth day, or the next business day, of the preceding calendar month. As of April 27, 2020, the one-month LIBOR rate is 0.43763%. The interest rate on a variable rate loan is comprised of an index and margin added together. The margin is a fixed amount (disclosed at the time of your loan application) added each month to the index to determine the next month’s variable rate. Variable rate options without an autopay discount consist of a range from 2.01% per year to 6.30% per year for a 5-year term, 4.00% per year to 6.35% per year for a 7-year term, 2.09% per year to 3.92% per year for a 8-year term, 4.25% per year to 6.40% per year for a 10-year term, 2.67% per year to 4.56% per year for a 12-year term, 3.44% per year to 6.65% per year for a 15-year term, 4.75% per year to 6.93% per year for a 20-year term, or 5.14% per year to 7.10% for a 25-year term, with no origination fees. APR is subject to increase after consummation. Variable interest rates will fluctuate over the term of the borrower’s loan with changes in the LIBOR rate, and will vary based on applicable terms, level of degree earned and presence of a co-signer. The maximum variable rate may be between 9.00% and 16.00%, depending on loan term. The floor rate may be between 0.54% and 4.21%, depending on loan term. These rates are subject to additional terms and conditions, and rates are subject to change at any time without notice. Such changes will only apply to applications taken after the effective date of change.
3 Important Disclosures for SoFi.
4 Important Disclosures for Earnest.
To qualify, you must be a U.S. citizen or possess a 10-year (non-conditional) Permanent Resident Card, reside in a state Earnest lends in, and satisfy our minimum eligibility criteria. You may find more information on loan eligibility here: https://www.earnest.com/eligibility. Not all applicants will be approved for a loan, and not all applicants will qualify for the lowest rate. Approval and interest rate depend on the review of a complete application.
Earnest fixed rate loan rates range from 3.21% APR (with Auto Pay) to 8.77% APR (with Auto Pay). Variable rate loan rates range from 3.21% APR (with Auto Pay) to 8.72% APR (with Auto Pay). For variable rate loans, although the interest rate will vary after you are approved, the interest rate will never exceed 8.95% for loan terms 10 years or less. For loan terms of 10 years to 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 9.95%. For loan terms over 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 11.95% (the maximum rates for these loans). Earnest variable interest rate loans are based on a publicly available index, the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). Your rate will be calculated each month by adding a margin between 1.82% and 5.50% to the one month LIBOR. The rate will not increase more than once per month. Earnest rate ranges are current as of May 8, 2020, and are subject to change based on market conditions and borrower eligibility.
Auto Pay discount: If you make monthly principal and interest payments by an automatic, monthly deduction from a savings or checking account, your rate will be reduced by one quarter of one percent (0.25%) for so long as you continue to make automatic, electronic monthly payments. This benefit is suspended during periods of deferment and forbearance.
The information provided on this page is updated as of 5/08/2020. Earnest reserves the right to change, pause, or terminate product offerings at any time without notice. Earnest loans are originated by Earnest Operations LLC. California Finance Lender License 6054788. NMLS # 1204917. Earnest Operations LLC is located at 302 2nd Street, Suite 401N, San Francisco, CA 94107. Terms and Conditions apply. Visit https://www.earnest.com/terms-of-service, email us at [email protected], or call 888-601-2801 for more information on our student loan refinance product.
© 2018 Earnest LLC. All rights reserved. Earnest LLC and its subsidiaries, including Earnest Operations LLC, are not sponsored by or agencies of the United States of America.
5 Important Disclosures for CommonBond.
Offered terms are subject to change. Loans are offered by CommonBond Lending, LLC (NMLS # 1175900). If you are approved for a loan, the interest rate offered will depend on your credit profile, your application, the loan term selected and will be within the ranges of rates shown. All Annual Percentage Rates (APRs) displayed assume borrowers enroll in auto pay and account for the 0.25% reduction in interest rate. All variable rates are based on a 1-month LIBOR assumption of 0.8100000000000002% effective April 10, 2020.
|1.99% – 6.65%1||Undergrad & Graduate|
|1.99% – 7.10%2||Undergrad & Graduate|
|3.21% – 6.67%3||Undergrad & Graduate|
|3.21% – 8.72%4||Undergrad & Graduate|
|3.22% – 6.05%5||Undergrad & Graduate|